Order Leptostraca

 

Family Nebaliidae Samoulle, 1819

 

Dahlella Hessler, 1984

Synonymy: Dahlella Hessler, 1984; Bowman et al., 1985; Dahl, 1985; Itô, 1988; Martin et al., 1996, Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species: Dahlella calderiensis Hessler, 1984, by monotypy.

 

Type locality: Galapagos hydrothermal vents, Alvin dive 990, from vestimentiferan thicket.

 

Diagnosis.-Eyestalk long and curved, with tubercles along anterior margin; eyestalk tapering gradually to a point, lacking visual pigments.

 

Etymology.-The genus was named for the carcinologist Eric Dahl of the University of Lund, Sweden.

 

Dahlella caldariensis Hessler, 1984

Synonymy: Dahlella caldariensis Hessler, 1984; Bowman et al., 1985; Dahl, 1985; Itô, 1988; Martin et al., 1996, Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Type locality: Galapagos hydrothermal vents, Alvin dive 990, from vestimentiferan thicket.

 

Type depository: USNM, holotype (USNM210827), paratypes (USNM); additional specimens at MNHN, Zoology Dept. Autonomous National University of Mexico, ZMUC, and author's collection (registration numbers not given).

 

Etymology.-The genus was named for Erik Dahl of the University of Lund; the specific name was created from the "Latin caldaria, a hot bath, and -ensis, living in, alluding to the habitat of this animal."

 

Remarks.- D. caldariensis has been described only from hydrothermal vent environments on the Galapagos spreading center and East Pacific Rise.

 

Nebalia Leach, 1814

Abbreviated Synonymy: Nebalia Leach, 1814; Milne-Edwards, 1835; Metschnikoff, 1868; Claus, 1872; Claus, 1889; Packard, 1879; Thomson, 1879; Packard, 1883; Claus, 1889; Sars, 1896; Ohlin, 1904; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Chilton, 1909; Calman, 1909; Barnard, 1914; LaFollette, 1914; Cannon, 1927; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Clark, 1932; Manton, 19343; Hanström, 1928; Linder, 1943; Rowett, 1943; Pillai, 1959; Wakabara, 1965; Rolfe, 1969; Brattegard, 1970; Johnson, 1970; Vader, 1973; Kensley, 1976; Jespersen, 1979; Macquart-Moulin & Castelbon, 1983; Wägele, 1983; Hessler, 1984; Schram & Malzahn, 1984; Bowman et al., 1985; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1987; Itô, 1988; Kazmi and Tirmizi, 1989; Dahl, 1990; Modlin, 1991; Rainer & Unsworth, 1991; Vetter, 1994a-b; Escobar-Briones and Villalobos-Hiriart, 1995; Martin and Christiansen, 1995; Vetter, 1995a-b; Martin et al., 1996; Vetter, 1996a-d; Vannier et al., 1997; Olesen, 1999. Epinebalia Clarke, 1932; Linder, 1943; Cannon, 1960; Rolfe, 1969; Wägele, 1983; Martin et al., 1996; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004. Neblia. Itô, 1988 (lapsus calami for Nebalia).

 

Type species: Nebalia herbstii, by original designation.

 

Type locality: "European Ocean."

 

Type depository: unknown.

 

Remarks: As currently understood, the worldwide genus Nebalia includes 18 nominal species. However, collections of many undescribed species are known, and we estimate that this number represents less than 50% of the extant Nebalia or Nebalia-like species.

 

Nebalia antarctica Dahl, 1990

Synonymy.- Nebalia antarctica Dahl, 1990. Nebalia longicornis magellanica (Antarctic "Guass" winter station specimens) Thiele, 1904; Thiele 1905, 1907; Leydoyer, 1969; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.-Eye with strongly developed dorsal papilla; fourth peduncular article of anntenule bearing single spine-like seta distally; first peduncular segment of antenna lacking anterodistal spine; second peduncular article of antenna bearing acute, anterodistal spine; epimeron of fourth pleonite with extended posterolateral corner; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites subacute.

 

Etymology.- Dahl (1990) named the species for its type locality.

 

Remarks.- Thiele (1905, 1907) regarded a number of specimens collected from the Ross Sea, Antarctica, to represent the subspecies Nebalia longicornis magellanica.  Upon comparing specimens from the Ross Sea to topotypic material for Nebalia longicornis, Dahl (1990) considered the Antarctic material to be unique and described it as Nebalia antarctica.

 

In addition to the type material, Dahl examined specimens of N. antarctica from the following localities: 'Discovery' Expedition, Winter Quarters, Hut Point, D. net, 01 Oct 1902, 1 specimen, (2) Same locality, No. 6 Hole, 130 fathoms, 02 Feb 1903, 1 specimen. (3) Same locality without further data, '1 specimen and 2 specimens', (4) 'Terra Nova' st. 331, 1 specimen, (5) King George V Land, Commonwealth Bay, Boat harbour, 5 fathoms, 06 Jun 1912, 1 specimen.

 

Type locality.- 'Antarctica, Ross Sea, "Discovery" Expedition, W. 2., no 4 hole, 4 fathoms, Jan, 10, 1903. 84 paratypes'.

 

Distribution.- 'Antarctic, Wilhelm II Land, and Adélie Land'.

 

Type depository.- BMNH, female holotype and 84 paratypes (registration number 1988: 95).

 

Nebalia bipes (Fabricius, 1780)

Synonymy.-Nebalia bipes (Fabricius, 1780); Claus, 1889; Sars, 1896; Thiele, 1904; Tattersall, 1905; Thiele, 1905; Calman, 1909; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Manton, 1934; Johnson, 1970; Kensley, 1976; MacQuart-Moulin and Castelbon, 1983; Itô, 1988; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990; Rainer and Unsworth, 1991; Kerambrun and Guerin, 1993; Vannier et al., 1997. Nebalia bipes Geoffroyi (?). Thiele, 1904. Nebalia bipes japanensis Thiele, 1904. Nebalia bipes valida Thiele, 1904; Kensley, 1976. Nebalia serrata Claus, 1887; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Etymology.- The original of the name is not knownbut perhaps was formed from the Latin bi-, meaning two, and -pes, for foot, possibly referring to the two types of limbs born by the animal.

 

Type locality.- North Atlantic Ocean, East Greenland.

 

Distribution.- Nebalia bipes has been recorded from throughout the northern hemisphere, though such a wide distribution for this species is questionable.

 

Type depository.- ZMUC, syntypes.

 

Nebalia borealis Dahl, 1985

Synonymy.- Nebalia borealis Dahl, 1985; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

Etymology.- Dahl (1985) named the species for its distribution in northern-boreal Europe.

 

Remarks.- In addition to the type locality, Dahl (1985) lists the following collection data: (1) Norway, Troms, coastal banks of Sorkvaloy, 350 m, baited trap, 28 Jul 1975, (2) Norway, Sogn og Fjordane, Floro, 1884, (3) Norway, Hordaland, Hjeltefjorden, 1978, several samples, (4) Norway, Hordaland, Raunefjorden, off Skogsvag, 240 m, several samples, (5) Norway, Skagerrak, Herfol, 25 m, (6) Sweden, Skagerrak, west of Nordkoster Island, 5-44 m, rocky bottom, 21 Aug 1884, (7) Sweden, Skagerrak, Kosterfjorden, Sneholmarna, 180 m, 05 Jun 1889, and 54 m, shell and sand, (8) Sweden, Skagerrak, Vadero Islands, 50 m, clay with sand, 16 July 1919, (9) Sweden, Skagerrak, outside Gullmarsfjorden, Sejningarna, 24 m, shell-sand, 18 Jul 1927, (10) Sweden, Skagerrak, outside Gullmarsfjorden, Flatholmen, 70 m, clay, 08 Nov 1933, (11) Sweden, Skagerrak, outside Gullmarsfjorden, Flatholmen, 50 m clay, Jun 1886, (12) British Isles, Shetland, Sleat Sound, Jul 1885.

 

Type locality.- 'Norway, Hordaland, Raunefjorden, 240 m'.

 

Distribution.- 'An endemic north-boreal European species, ranging from the coastal banks of northern Norway (Troms) to the Swedish west coast and the Shetlands'.

 

Type depository.- SMNHS, female holotype (registration number 3266) and paratypes.

 

Nebalia cannoni Dahl, 1990 

Synonymy.- Nebalia cannoni Dahl, 1990. Nebalia longicornis magellanica (South Georgia specimens, not of Thiele) Cannon, 1931; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye with well developed dorsal papilla, projecting freely over dorsal surface of eye; ommatidia covering nearly whole eyestalk; fourth peduncular article of anntenule bearing single spine-like seta distally; first peduncular segment of antenna lacking anterodistal spine; second peduncular article of antenna bearing acute, anterodistal spine; exopod of pleopod one with approximately 30 setae in row; epimeron of fourth pleonite with extended posterolateral corner; posterior margin of protopod of pleopod four crenulate; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites rounded distally.

 

Etymology.- Dahl named the species for H. G. Cannon, 'in recognition of his contributions to the knowledge of the Leptostraca.'

 

Remarks.- In addition to the type material, Dahl examined material from the following locality: South Georgia, 'Discovery' St. 45, 2.7 miles S. Jason Light, 238-270 m, 06 Apr 1926, 1 specimen.

 

Type locality.- 'South Georgia, "Discovery" st. 144, 54°04'-53°38' S, 36°26' W, 155-178 m, Jan. 5, 1927'.

 

Distribution.-This species is known only from its type locality.

 

Type depository.- BMNH, female holotype (registration number 1988:96); IOSW, paratypes (number of paratypes not given).

 

Nebalia capensis Barnard, 1914 

Synonymy.- Nebalia capensis Barnard, 1914; Kensley, 1976; Dahl, 1990. Nebalia longicornis magellanica (South Africa specimens, not of Thiele) Cannon, 1931; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye bearing anterodorsal papilla; supraocular scale short, distally acute; fourth article of antennular peduncle with one to two spine-like setae; first article of antennule with even anterodistal margin, lacking spine; distal endite of maxillule bearing pectinate, spine-like setae, some with subterminal flange arising from shaft; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites rounded distally.

 

Etymology.-Barnard named this species for its type locality on the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.

 

Remarks.- Kensley (1976) redescribed N. capensis Barnard and noted its similarity to specimens described by Thiele (1904) as Nebalia longicornis magellanica and recommended that the status of the 'longicornis-complex' be assessed.

 

Type locality.-South Pacific Ocean, South Africa, Mouille Point, Table Bay, and Table Bay sewerage outlet, intertidal.

 

Distribution.-Nebalia capensis has been collected from several localities along the coast of South Africa: False Bay, Table Bay, Lamberts Bay, Orange River mouth, and Sandwich Harbour.

 

Type depository.-SAM, syntypes (SAM-A1574).

 

Nebalia clausi Dahl, 1985

Synonymy.- Nebalia clausi Dahl, 1985; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eyestalk less than half length of rostrum; supraocular scale acute, posterolateral corner of pleonite four produced and subacute.

 

Etymology.- Dahl stated that the species was "dedicated to the memory of the great German carcinologist C. Claus who, in the last century, made unique contributions to our knowledge and understanding of leptostracan morphology."

 

Remarks.- Dahl (1985) described this species from a sample of female specimens housed in the collection of the Natural History Museum (London); the lot did not include male specimens.

 

Type locality.- Mediterranean, Gulf of Adria.

 

Distribution.- Gulf of Adria.

 

Type depository.- BMNH, female holotype (registration number not given) and paratypes.

 

Nebalia daytoni Vetter, 1996a

Synonymy.- Nebalia daytoni Vetter, 1996a; Vetter, 1996b-d; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eyestalk shorter than rostrum, with flat anterior margin bordered by superior and inferior protuberance; antennular flagellum short, comprising six articles; penultimate article of mandibular palp with long, plumose subterminal seta; maxillary exopod subequal in length to first article of endopod.

 

Etymology.- Vetter (1996) named the species for ‘a good friend and enthusiastic biologist, Dr. Paul K. Dayton (Scripps Institution of Oceanography).’

 

Remarks.-Two characters were given as diagnostic of Nebalia daytoni, the morphology of the anterior margin of the eye and an elongate supraocular scale.  While the flat distal margin of the eye, bordered by small protuberances, does appear unique, the second character is questionable.  The appearance of an elongate supraocular plate might be an artifact of a relatively short eyestalk.

 

Vetter (1996) noted that, at 20 meters of depth, N. daytoni occurred in densities of 400 to 1200 animals per square meter.  N. daytoni has only been recorded from areas of oligotrophic sands, whereas the other two species known from the same region, N. hessleri Martin et al., and Nebalia sp.,  appear to be restricted to submarine detrital mats.  Although most Leptostraca are seemingly restricted to low energy environments, Vetter (1996) noted that the habitat to be subject to strong currents and surge.  Aside from these finer-scale differences in distribution, N. daytoni also differs in its feeding behavior; Vetter states, ‘Unlike Nebalia spec. A [N. hessleri] and the other two subtidal Southern California species, Nebalia daytoni is not attracted to bait.’

 

Type locality.- ‘From sandy substrate, 20 m depth, due west of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier, La Jolla, California (32°52’30”N 117°15’15”W).’  Date of collection 26 Jun 1992.

 

Distribution.- To date, N. daytoni is known only from the waters off San Diego County, California, on sandy substrate at 8 to 35 meters in depth.  The species has been collected from sediments off the coast from the cities of La Jolla and Del Mar.

 

Sexual dimorphism.- Males have larger eyes, larger pleopods, and more elongate and setose antennular and antennal flagella.  Additionally, the carapace of the male is more elliptical in shape.  Males are apparently uncommon in the collections made by Vetter.

 

Type depository.- USNM, female holotype (registration number 264032) and paratypes (number of specimens not given, registration number 264033); CAS, paratypes (no. of specimens not given, registration no. 094833); LACM, paratypes (no. specimens not given, registration no. not given); SIO, paratypes (no. of specimens not given, registration no. C-9812); ZMUC, paratypes (no. specimens not given, registration no. not given).

 

Nebalia falklandensis Dahl, 1990 

Synonymy.- Nebalia falklandensis Dahl, 1990. Nebalia longicornis magellanica (Falkland island specimens, not of Thiele) Cannon, 1931: Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye with well developed dorsal papilla; ommatidia covering 4/5 length of eyestalk; fourth peduncular article of anntenule bearing single spine-like seta distally; first peduncular segment of antenna lacking anterodistal spine; second peduncular article of antenna bearing acute, anterodistal spine; epimeron of fourth pleonite with even posterolateral corner, not extended; posterior margin of protopod of pleopod four crenulate; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites rounded distally.

 

Etymology.- Dahl (1990) named the species for the Falkland islands, its type locality.

 

Remarks.- Dahl (1990) described this species from a single, female specimen.

 

Type locality.- 'Falkland Islands, "Discovery", St. 51, off Eddystone Rock, May 14, 1926, only holotype.

 

Distribution.- To date, known only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.- BMNH, female holotype (Registration number 1988:97).

 

 

Nebalia geoffroyi Milne-Edwards, 1828

Synonymy.- Nebalia geoffroyi Milne-Edwards, 1828; Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Cannon, 1931; Hessler, 1984.

 

Remarks.-

Dahl (1985), following an examination of the three type specimens for Nebalia herbstii Leach and a syntype specimen of N. geoffroyi, declared the latter species to represent a subjective junior synonym of N. herbstii.  However, Dahl's recommendation was not accompanied by any discussion of his justification for designating N. geoffroyi as the junior synonym of N. herbstii.  In fact, the material that served as the basis of his comparison between these two taxa was described as 'so distorted...that few if any details can be seen.'  His lack of reference to the similarities among the specimens and the 'very poor condition' of the three type specimens of N. herbstii, warrant a re-evaluation of authentic collections of N. geoffroyi.  The holotype of N. geoffroyi is still extant, housed in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.  Dahl (1985) also noted the existence of a 'syntype' that had been presented to him for study by Jaques Forest; however, Dahl did not mention where that specimen was deposited.

 

In addition to the type material, Dahl (1985) listed samples from the following twenty localities: (1) Scotland, Shetland, 1867, without further data, (2) Scotland, Firth of Clyde, Millport, marine Biological Station, intertidal, (3) Isle of Man, off Garwick, 7-20 m, 24 Sep 1892, (4) Ireland, Dublin Bay, in gut of Gaidropsarus mediterraneus, 17 Sep 1963, (5) Ireland, off southwest Ireland, no additional data, (6) England, south coast, Cornwall, Falmouth, (7) England, Polperro, 11 Aug 1911, (8) England, Dorset, Swanage, New Pier, in shell of dead Carcinus, 3-4 m below LWS, 30 Apr 1966, (9) England, Sussex, Worthing, 2m, (10) Channel Islands, Guernsey, 1896, (11) British Isles, Channel Islands, Jersey, '8.9.1929', (12) France, Bretagne, north coast, Roscoff, low tide, 28 Aug 1972, (13) France, Bretagne, south coast of Finisterre, no additional data, (14) France, Bretagne, Isles Glehans, 08 Sep 1922, (15) France, Bretagne, Isle Cygogne, 25 Aug 1922, (16) France, Bretagne, St. Nicolas, 24 Aug 1922, (17) France, Bretagne, Isle de Noirmoutier, 1901, (18) 'various samples from south coast of Bretagne without further data', (19) France, Bay of Biscay, Bassin de Arcahon, clay and Zostera roots, 1901, (20) France, Bay of Biscay, St. Jean de Luz, no additional data.

 

According to available data, Nebalia geoffroyi is a shallow-water species; it has not been collected from depths greater than 20 meters and has most often been collected in waters much more shallow.

 

Type locality.- France, Bretagne.

 

Distribution.-The range of Nebalia geoffroyi is apparently restricted to the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, along the coasts of France and the islands of the United Kingdom.

 

Type depository.- MNHN, holotype and paratypes.

 

Nebalia gerkenae Haney & Martin, 2000 

Synonymy.- Nebalia gerkenae Haney & Martin, 2000; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Average body length less than 6mm; rostrum with rectangular keel; eyestalk oval, widest at center; fourth article of antennular peducle with two robust setae; antellular flagellum with 10 or more segments;

 

Etymology.- Haney and Martin (2000) named the species for Sarah A. Gerken, who studied the animal for her M.S. degree research.

 

Remarks.- To date, this species has been reported only from its type locality; the specimens were collected at low tide from beneath mats of the alga of the genus Gracilaria.

 

Type locality.- United States, California, Monterey County, Bennett Slough, intertidal mudflat.

 

Distribution.- To date, known only from type locality.

 

Type depository.- LACM, holotype and paratypes; USNM, paratypes.

 

 

Nebalia herbstii Leach, 1814 

Synonymy.- Nebalia herbstii Leach, 1814; Claus, 1889; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Antennule with third article twice as long as fourth article; antennular scale twice as long as wide; postero-lateral corner of pleonite four epimeron without distinct denticles; pleopod four protopod with small distal extension.

 

Etymology.- Leach (1814) named the species for Herbst, who he assumed was the first to describe the animal.  Leach was evidently unaware that Fabricius (1780) had described a similar animal as Cancer bipes (now Nebalia bipes). 

 

Remarks.- Dahl (1985) considered 3 specimens (registration numbers 277a-c) from the Leach Collection of the Natural History Museum (London) to represent the syntype specimens.  He assigned lectotype status to a mature female (registration number 277c).

 

Type locality.- 'British Coast'.

 

Distribution.- Dahl (1985) lists the species as a 'south-boreal-Lusitanian species, at present with a known range from the Shetland Islands along the western parts of the British Isles and French west coast to the Spanish borer.'  He also lists N. herbstii as the dominant species of Nebalia in this region.

 

Type depository.- BMNH, female lectotype (registration number 277c) and 2 paralectotypes (one female and one male, registration numbers 277a and 277b, respectively).

 

 

Nebalia hessleri Martin et al., 1996

Synonymy.- Nebalia hessleri Martin et al., 1996. Nebalia sp. Martin and Christiansen, 1995. Nebalia sp. Vetter, 1994a; Vetter, 1995a-b; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.-

 

Etymology.- Martin et al. (1996) named the species for Robert R. Hessler, 'in honor of his many excellent contributions to crustacean morphology and systematics.'

 

Remarks.-This species has only been recorded from detrital mats present at the head of Scripps Submarine Canyon, off La Jolla, California.  However, it has been recorded in densities as high as 2 million individuals per square meter, higher than that known for any other species of leptostracan.

 

Type locality.- United States, California, San Diego County, off La Jolla, approximately 19 m.

 

Distribution.- To date, known only from type locality.

 

Type depository.- LACM, female holotype (LACM 92-169.1), allotype (LACM 92-169.2), and paratypes (40 specimens, LACM 92-169.3); CAS, paratypes (10 specimens, CASSIZ 104580); SIO, paratypes (10 specimens, SIO C 9812); USNM, paratypes (10 specimens, USNM 280090).

 

 

Nebalia ilheoensis Kensley, 1976 

Synonymy.- Nebalia ilheoensis Kensley, 1976; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.-Eye unornamented, lacking papilla; supraocular scale short, distally acute; fourth article of antennular peduncle with five spine-like setae; first article of antennule with even anterodistal margin, lacking spine; distal endite of maxillule bearing simple, spine-like setae; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites blunt, subrectangular.

 

Etymology.-Kensley (1976) named the species after the ‘Portuguese name for Sandwich Harbour, Port D’Ilheo.

 

Remarks.- Kensely (1976) considered N. ilheoensis to be closer Nebalia bipes valida than to N. longicornis in the morphology of the antenna; however, the author noted that N. ilheoensis lacked other features of N. bipes, such as the pectinate spines of the antennular scale and spinose protopods of pleopods three and four.

 

For the first article of the antennal peduncle, Kensely (1976) did not draw the prominent antero-dorsal spine found in most other species of Nebalia.  It is not known whether N. capensis and N. ilheoensis lack this feature or it was simply an oversight on the part of the author.

 

Type locality.-'320 specimens taken from stomach contents of kob, Argyrosoma hololepidotus caught at Sandwich Harbour, South West Africa.'

 

Distribution.-To date, the species is known only from the original collection from Sandwich Harbour.

 

Type depository.- SAM, female holotype (registration no. A14997) and 10 paratypes (registration no. A14998); SMW, 10 paratypes (SM-N50451).

 

 

Nebalia lagartensis Escobar & Villalobos-Hiriart, 1995

 

Synonymy.- Nebalia lagartensis Escobar & Villalobos-Hiriart, 1995; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye lacking dorsal papilla; antennule with fourth article bearing one large and one short spine-like seta distally; antennular and antennal flagellum each with 12 articles; denticles of posterior margin of pleonites acute.

 

Etymology.- Escobar-Briones and Villalobos-Hiriart (1995) named the species for its type locality.

 

Remarks.- N. lagartensis is currently the only species of leptostracan to be described from waters off Mexico.  My examination of the collections of Leptostraca at the National Museum of Natural History (USNM) revealed the existence of additional collections of leptostracan specimens from the Yucatán Peninsula.  While these specimens clearly belong to the genus Nebalia, they remain unidentified.  Additionally, the Crustacea Collection at the USNM also houses specimens of Paranebalia from this region of México.  Escobar-Briones and Villalobos-Hiriart (1995) noted the presence of a single ‘spine’ on the fourth antennular article as one of the distinguishing features of N. lagartensis.  However, their description of the female (p. 2) states, ‘fourth article with one short spines distally’.  The illustration shows only one spine-like seta on the fourth antennular article (see Escobar-Briones and Villalobos-Hiriart 1995, fig. 1.).

 

Type locality.- ‘Ría Lagartos, Yucatán Peninsula, northern Yucatán State, México.’  Date of collection Nov 1985.

 

Distribution.- To date, N. lagartensis has been collected only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.- UNAM, female holotype (registration no. EM-4956) and 29 female paratypes (registration no. EM-4956); USNM, three female paratypes (registration no. not given).

 

Nebalia longicornis Thomson, 1879 

Synonymy.- Nebalia longicornis Thomson, 1879; Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Cannon, 1931; Johnson, 1970; Kensley, 1976; Hessler, 1984; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990; Rainer and Unsworth, 1991. Nebalia longicornis magellanica Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1907; Cannon, 1931; Kensley, 1976; Dahl, 1990. Nebalia longicornis soror Thiele, 1904; Kensley, 1976; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.-Antennular flagellum of 70 to 80 segments.

 

Etymology.- Thomsom (1879) named the species for its elongate antenna.

 

Remarks.- The species was apparently aptly named; Thomson (1879) described the original specimen as possessing an antennular flagellum of ‘between 70 and 80 articulations.’  The historical use of the name Nebalia longicornis is complicated.  Observing little morphological variation among specimens from a wide range of localities, Thiele (1904, 1905) referred material from throughout the Southern Hemisphere to Nebalia longicornis.  Dahl (1990) discussed this problem and noted that at least 10 different species had been mistakenly identified as N. longicornis.  Dahl (1990), for instance, considered those records of the subspecies Nebalia longicornis magellanica to represent two species distinct from N. longicornis and named them Nebalia antarctica and Nebalia patagonica.  Thiele (1904) had also established  a second subspecies, Nebalia longicornis soror, for specimens collected in Cuba; these specimens are presumably held in the collections of the Zoological Museum in Berlin and have not since been examined.  Therefore, the status of the subspecies N. longicornis soror remains questionable.

 

Dahl (1990) designated a lectotype for N. longicornis from three topotypic samples sent to him by Professor John B. Jillett, University of Otago.  These samples were collected from the following localities: (1) New Zealand, South Island, Otago Harbour, Portobello Marine Biological Station, Locality 14 B 122, 18 fathoms, 07 Jul 1965, 1 specimen, (2) same area, locality B 7 [1], 6 fathoms, 17 Jun 1965, 1 specimen, and (3) same area, locality B 102, 6 fathoms, 06 Jun 1965, 1 specimen.  Because the specimens described by Dahl (1990) did not represent the original series from which Thompson first erected the name, the more recent material from Otago Harbor cannot represent lectotype material.  Instead, the female specimen designated as the lectotype by Dahl (1990) should be referred to as the neotype of Nebalia longicornis, and the two 'paralectotypes' simply represent additional topotypic material.

 

Type locality.- New Zealand, ‘Dunedin Harbour’.

 

Neotype locality.- 'New Zealand, South Island, Otago Harbour, Portobello Marine Biological Station. Locality 14 B 122, 18 fathoms. July 7, 1965. 2 paralectotypes'.

 

Distribution.-Until distributional records can be re-evaluated, the distribution of N. longicornis is limited to its type locality in Otago Harbour, New Zealand.

 

Type depository.- NMNZ, female lectotype and 2 paralectotypes (registration number not given).

 

Material examined.-Nebalia longicornis Thompson, New Zealand, Portobello, from weeds; coll. M. J. Dadswell, 07 Feb 1968; 1 female; CMN accession 1968-187, uncatalogued.

 

 

Nebalia marerubi Wägele, 1983 

Synonymy.- Nebalia marerubi Wägele, 1983; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Rostral keel present; carapace not extending beyond pleonite four; supraocular scale acute; eye smooth, unornamented; article four of antennular flagellum with single robust seta; antennal flagellum with approximately 15 articles; length of distal seta of caudal furca longer than furca.

 

Etymology.- The species is named after the Red Sea, in which it was found.

 

Remarks.- Wägele (1983) commented that N. marerubi exhibited similarity in some features with those of N. pugettensis (Clark) from Labrador.  Although it should be clear that N. pugettensis was described from material collected in Friday Harbor, Washington, and has never been recorded from Labrador, the two species indeed share some characteristics.

 

Type locality.- Red Sea, Gulf of Elat, 7 kilometers south of Elat, Israel, 9 meters depth.

 

Distribution.- To date, N. marerubi is known only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.- ZMK, holotype female (Cr. Nr. 2316) and allotype (Cr. Nr. 2317); BMNH, 5 paratypes.

 

Nebalia patagonica Dahl, 1990 

Synonymy.- Nebalia patagonica Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye with well developed dorsal papilla; ommatidia covering 2/3 length of eyestalk; supraocular plate acute; fourth peduncular article of anntenule bearing single spine-like seta distally; first peduncular segment of antenna lacking anterodistal spine; second peduncular article of antenna bearing acute, anterodistal spine; exopod of pleopod one with approximately 17 setae in row; epimeron of fourth pleonite with even posterolateral corner, not extended; posterior margin of protopod of pleopod four crenulate; teeth of posterior margin of pleonites rounded distally.

 

Etymology.- Dahl (1990) named the species for its type locality.

 

Remarks.- Thiele (1904) presumably described the subspecies Nebalia longicornis magellanica for material from the South American waters of Punta Arenas and the Straits of Magellan.  However, Dahl (1990), after examining material from the same region and comparing it with topotypic material for N. longicornis, determined that the South American material represented a new species.  Thus, Nebalia patagonica was described to accomodate Thiele's Nebalia longicornis magellanica from South America as well as other specimens studied by Dahl from the collections of the Swedish State Museum of Natural History.  In addition to the type locality of Hope Harbor, Tierra del Fuego, Dahl examined material from the following locations: (1) Straits of magellan, Punta Arenas, intertidal, sand under stones. 'Not rare'. 5 specimens. 02 Dec 1896. Swedish Expedition to Tierra del Fuego, (2) Puerto Churruca, 20 fathoms, dead shells. 1 specimen, 26 Mar 1896, Swedish Expedition to Tierra del Fuego, (3) Fortescue Bay, 10-12 fathoms, algae, 25 Mar 1896, 1 specimen, Swedish Expedition to Tierra del Fuego, and (4) Beagle Channel, Ushuaia, clay, 10 fathoms, 05 May 1896, 1 specimen, Swedish Expedition to Tierra del Fuego, and 6 m, clay, 1 specimen, 10 Oct 1902, Swedish Antarctic Expedition.  All of the samples from the above localities were deposited in the State Museum of Natural History (Stockholm).

 

Type locality.- 'Tierra del Fuego, Canal Magdalena, Hope Harbour, 6-10 m, rocks with algae, April 30, 1894'.

 

Distribution.-Nebalia patagonica is known only from the 'Magellan Region' off Tierra del Fuego.

 

Type depository.- SMNHS, female holotype (registration number 3960) and paratype material (number of paratype specimens not given).

 

 

Nebalia pugettensis (Clark, 1932)

Synonymy.-Epinebalia pugettensis Clark, 1932; Nebalia pugettensis: Jespersen, 1979; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Etymology.- The specific name was formed for the type locality of Puget Sound, Washington.

 

Remarks.- According to Clark (1932), the specimens were received by her (presumably while at McGill University in Montreal) from the Pacific Biological Station in Monterey, California.  There is no mention of a type depository for the original material, and the type specimens have been presumed lost.  The collections of following institutions have been checked for the type specimens of N. pugettensis: Canadian Museum of Nature (Ottawa), McGill University (Montreal), Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History (Los Angeles), Natural History Museum (London), and National Museum of Natural History (District of Columbia).  The only possibility thus far seems to be a single lot at the NMNH that contains a label that reads, "Ricketts."  Since Edward Ricketts owned the Pacific Biological Station from which the specimen was received and at the time of the description, it is not unlikely that this lot represents the original material.  However, the specimen has not yet been examined.

 

Type locality.- Puget Sound, Washington.

 

Distribution.- Because their is some taxonomic confusion regarding the status of this species, distributional records should be interpreted with caution.  The species was described from Puget Sound, Washington, but there are records of N. pugettensis from Monterey Bay, California, to Alaska.

 

Type depository.- unknown.

 

Nebalia schizophthalma Haney, Hessler and Martin, 2001 

Synonymy.- Nebalia schizopthalma Haney, Hessler and Martin, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.- Eye with distal margin invaginated medially along frontal plane; upturned ocular scale; fourth article of the antennule lacking spinelike setae.

 

Etymology.- The specific name refers to the unique morphology of the eye; the epithet is a feminine noun formed by the Greek compounded adjectives schizo-, meaning split, and ophthalmos-, meaning eye.

 

Remarks.- Nebalia schizopthalma was described from a single specimen collected from deep waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in 1964.  This species is known from a single specimen, collected at 2886 meters of depth along the Gayhead-Bermuda Transect.  The collection holds the depth record for the Family Nebaliidae; only the leptostracan Nebaliopsis typica has been recorded from deeper waters.

 

Type locality.- "North Atlantic Ocean, Gayhead-Bermuda Transect, 38°46.0'N, 70°06.0'W, Station #64 (HH), 2886 meters."

 

Distribution.-Nebalia schizophthalma is known only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.- LACM, single holotype female.

 

 

Nebalia strausi Risso, 1826

Synonymy.- Nebalia strausi Risso, 1826; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990; Rainer and Unsworth, 1991; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

Distribution.-Nebalia strausi is known only from the waters of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean.  It has been collected from the islands of St. Helena and Madeira as well as the western coast of Europe from northwestern France to the Channel Islands.

 

Type depository.- Unknown.

 

Nebalia troncosoi Moreira et al., 2003

Synonymy.- Nebalia troncosoi Moreira et al., 2003.

Diagnosis.-Rostrum 2.7-2.9 times as long as wide; eyestalk with small distal lobes; antennular flagellum with up to 7 articles; maxilla 2 exopod longer than first article of endopod; posterior margin of pleonites 6-7 with acute denticles.

 

Etymology.-The species was named for Dr. Jesus S. Troncoso, University of Vigo, Spain.

Type locality.-Ensenada de Baiona, Galicia, northwestern Spain.

 

Distribution.-To date, the species is known only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.-Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (MNCN).

 

Nebalia sp.

Jespersen, 1979. [‘One male of Nebalia sp. was collected at Lilleskär, Tjärnö Marine Station, west coast of Sweden, at a depth of 35 m in October 1978 by Dr. O. Tendal, Copenhagen.  According to Professor E. Dahl, University of Lund, Sweden, who presently works on a revision of the Nebaliidae, this specimen probably belongs to an undescribed species of Nebalia (pers. comm.).’]

 

Nebalia sp.

Brattegard, 1970; Itô, 1988.

 

Nebalia sp.

Johnson, 1970; Dahl, 1990 [for specimens collected from Singapore, Indonesia]

 

Nebalia sp.

Thiele, 1904; Dahl, 1990 [for specimens collected from Blanche Bay, New Britain]

 

Nebalia sp.

Wakabara, 1964; Dahl, 1990; Escobar-Briones and Villalobos-Hiriart, 1995 [for specimens collected off Ubatuta, Brazil]

 

Nebalia sp.

Dahl, 1990 [for N. longicornis of Thiele (1904) from the Loyalty Islands, Lifu]

 

Nebalia sp.

Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001 [for specimens from Eastern Bass Strait]

 

Nebalia sp.

Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001 [for specimens from Tasmania and Eastern Bass Strait]

 

Nebalia sp.

Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001 [for specimens from southern Western Australia]

 

Nebaliella Thiele, 1904

Abbreviated Synonymy.- Nebaliella Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Clark, 1932; Linder, 1943; Rowett, 1943; Rolfe, 1969; Brattegard, 1970; Wägele, 1983; Hessler, 1984; Schram & Malzahn, 1984; Bowman et al., 1985; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990; Martin et al., 1996; Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith, 1999; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004. Neballiella Barnard, 1914 (lapsus calami for Nebaliella).

 

Type species: Nebaliella antarctica Thiele, 1904, by original designation.

 

Type locality: New Zealand, Akaroa Harbor.

 

Type depository: ZMUC.

 

Diagnosis.-Rostral keel longer than rostrum; rostrum lacking distal seta; eyestalks unpigmented and  strongly curved, much longer than rostrum; pleopod 6 biarticulate, longer than pleopod 5.

 

Etymology.-

 

Remarks: The genus contains five species; N. antarctica Thiele, 1904, N. brevicarinata Kikuchi and Gamo, 1992, N. caboti Clark, 1932, N. extrema Thiele, 1905, and N. declivatus Walker-Smith, 1999, that have been recorded from Antarctica and New Zealand, Antarctica, Antarctica, the North Atlantic, and Australian waters, respectively.

 

Nebaliella antarctica Thiele, 1904

Synonymy.-Nebaliella antarctica Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Etymology.-The species was named for the region of its type locality, Antarctica.

 

Remarks.-The two depth records for this species indicate that it inhabits much shallower waters (9 to 19 meters) than congeneric species.

 

Type locality.-Antarctica, Kerguelen, ~9-19 meters of depth.

 

Distribution.-Few records exist for this species.  It has been collected in only two areas: (1) Kerguelen, Antarctica, and (2) Akaroa Harbor, New Zealand.  The single specimen from New Zealand, housed in the collection of the Zoologisk Museum (Copenhagen), was examined by Thiele and said to represent a juvenile of N. antarctica; the status of the specimen should be confirmed.

  

Nebaliella brevicarinata Kikuchi and Gamo, 1992

Synonymy.-Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Nebaliella caboti Clark, 1932 

Synonymy.-Nebaliella caboti Clarke, 1932; Hessler and Sanders, 1965; Mauchline and Gage, 1983; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Diagnosis.-Eyestalk elongate and tubular, rounded distally.

 

Etymology.-The species was named after the type locality of Cabot's Strait.

 

Type locality.-Cabot Strait, 378 meters of depth.

 

Distribution.-Nebaliella caboti presumably ranges throughout the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.  Originally discovered from the waters of Cabot Strait at a depth of 378 meters, this species has since been recorded off the coast of New Jersey (Hessler and Sanders, 1965) and the Rockall Trough (Mauchline and Gage, 1983).

 

Type depository.-

 

Nebaliella extrema, Thiele, 1905 

Synonymy.- Nebaliella extrema, Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Remarks.-Nebaliella extrema was the second species assigned to the genus, described by Thiele (1905) from 15 specimens collected by the 'Gauss' off the coast of Antarctica.  Cannon (1931) noted one additional specimen from the Discovery Expedition, also collected off Antarctica, and reported that 'Thiele does not figure or give measurements of N. extrema but from his account it is to be presumed that it did not differ markedly in general shape and size from N. antarctica.'

 

Type locality.-Antarctica, Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, 380-385 meters of depth.

  

Nebaliella declivatus Walker-Smith, 1999 

Synonymy.-Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Sarsinebalia Dahl, 1985

Abbreviated Synonymy.-Sarsinebalia Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990; Martin et al., 1996; Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species.- Sarsinebalia typhlops (Sars, 1870), by monotypy.

 

Type locality.- Lofoten Islands, near "Gulbrandsoerne" (now Gullbrandsoya), c. 120, fathoms228m.

 

Type depository.- Zoological Museum, Oslo.

Etymology.- Dahl named the genus for G. O. Sars who 'by his studies of Nebalia, Paranebalia, and Nebaliopsis became the great pioneer in the field of leptostracan taxonomy.'

 

Remarks.- Sarsinebalia is endemic to the North Atlantic, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea.  In distinguishing Sarsinebalia typhlops from Nebalia bipes, Tattersall (1905) noted the spiniform process of the distal margin of the rostrum and the lack of visual pigment in the eyes in the former species.

 

Sarsinebalia cristoboi Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003

Abbreviated Synonymy.-Sarsinebalia cristoboi Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003.

 

Type locality.-Ria de Vigo and Ria de Aldan, Spain.

Type depository.-Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (MNCN).

 

Diagnosis.-"Eye disc-shaped, slightly longer than wide, with externally discernible ommatidia and red pigment covering almost entire eye; supra-orbital plate reaching distal end of eye dorsally. Rostrum slightly turning downwards, with paired ventral keels fused proximally. Antennular flagellum with up to eight articles. Exopod of second maxilla longer than first article of endopod. Posterolateral border fo fourth pleonite with acute spine-like teeth, ending in larger tooth. Protopod of fourth pleopod with several crenulations along posterior border, ending in acute tooth at posterolateral corner. Fifth pleopod with six large spines along distolateral border. Sixth pleopod with five large spines on distolateral border. Pleonites 6 and 7 with distally rounded teeth along dorsal and lateral posterior borders. Furcal rami about as long as telson and pleonite 7 combined.

Etymology.-Moreira et al. (2003) named this species for Dr. Francisco J. Cristobo, University of Santiago, Spain.

Sarsinebalia typhlops (Sars, 1896)

Synonymy.- Sarsinebalia typhlops (Sars, 1896) Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1990. Nebalia typhlops Sars, 1896; Claus, 1889; Lo Bianco, 1903; Tattersall, 1905; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1927; Johnson, 1970; Mauchline and Gage, 1983; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001. Nebalia typhlops occidentalis Hessler and Sanders, 1965.

 

Remarks.-Sarsinebalia typhlops was originally described (as Nebalia typhlops) from the Lofoten Islands, Norway, at depths of approximately 300 to 400 meters.  Fifteen specimens of S. typhlops were later found in benthic samples near Ireland (Tattersall, 1905); these were collected from trawls taken 60 miles west of Achill Head and 50 miles west of Cleggan Head at 364 and 219 meters of depth, respectively.  By this time, only one record of S. typhlops had existed for waters outside of the North Atlantic, reported by Lo Bianco (1903) for specimens collected in the Mediterranean Sea.  Hessler and Sanders (1965) described N. typhlops occidentalis from 467 to 509 in the North Atlantic.  Mauchline and Gage (1983) reported 19 individuals of this species from 1993 to 2925 meters of depth in the Rockall Trough.

 Sarsinebalia urgorrii Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003

Abbreviated Synonymy.-Sarsinebalia urgorrii Moreira, Gestoso, and Troncoso, 2003.

Type locality.-Ensenada de Baiona, Galicia, northwestern Spain.

 

Type depository.- Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (MNCN).

 

Diagnosis.-"Eye disc-shaped, longer than wide, with ommatidia and red pigment; supraorbital plate about 0.6 times length of eye. Rostrum slightly turning downwards, with paired ventral keels fused proximally. Antennular flagellum with up to eight articles. Exopod of second maxilla longer than first article of endopod. Posterolateral border of fourth pleonite bearing rounded teeth, ending in a larger tooth. Protopod of fourth pleopod with several crenulations along posterior border, ending in acute tooth at posterolateral corner. Fifth pleopod with six large spines on distolateral border. Sixth pleopod with four large spines on distolateral border. Pleonites 6-7 with distally rounded teeth along posterior border. Furcal rami equal to or slightly shorter than telson and pleonite 7 combined."

Etymology.-Moreira et al. (2003) named this species for Dr. Victoriano Urgorri, University of Santiago, Spain.

Speonebalia Bowman, Yager, and Iliffe, 1985

Abbreviated Synonymy.-Speonebalia Bowman, Yager, and Iliffe, 1985; Martin et al., 1996; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species.-Speonebalia cannoni Bowman, Yager, Iliffe, 1985, by monotypy.

 

Type locality.-Turks and Caicos Islands, Caicos Islands, Providenciales Island, The Hole, 5-7m, and Airport Cave, 10m.

 

Type depository.-USNM.

 

Remarks: The genus was erected for specimens collected from marine caves. It is suspected that undescribed species exist in similar hypogean environments of the Caribbean.

 

Speonebalia cannoni Bowman, Yager, and Iliffe, 1985

Synonymy.- Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Family Paranebaliidae Walker-Smith, 2000

 

Levinebalia Walker-Smith, 2000 

Synonymy.- Levinebalia Walker-Smith, 2000; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species.- Levinebalia mariaWalker-Smith, 2000, by original designation.

 

Diagnosis.- Eyestalk surface smooth, non-tuberculate; mandibular incisor lacking setal brush;

 

Etymology.- The root word Levi (Latin) refers to the smooth nature of the eye among members of this genus.

 

Distribution.-The genus is known to occur throughout Australia, and one specimen has been collected of the coast of Chile.

 

Levinebalia fortunata (Wakabara, 1976)

Synonymy.-Levinebalia fortunata Walker-Smith, 2000; Paranebalia fortunata Wakabara, 1976; Walker-Smith, 2000.

 

Etymology.-

 

Type locality.- ‘Tasman Sea, 15 km E of Maria Island, Tasmania (42°37’S, 148°20’E), 102 m, WHOI epibenthic sled, R. S. Wilson, on RV Soela, 09 Oct, 1984 (stn So5/841)’.

 

Distribution.-The species is known from New Zealand.

 

Levinebalia maria Walker-Smith, 2000

Synonymy.- Levinebalia maria Walker-Smith, 2000; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Etymology.- The species was named for its type locality, Maria Island, Tasmania.

 

Type locality.- ‘Tasman Sea, 15 km E of Maria Island, Tasmania (42°37’S, 148°20’E), 102 m, WHOI epibenthic sled, R. S. Wilson, on RV Soela, 09 Oct, 1984 (stn So5/841)’.

 

Distribution.-The species is known from Tasmania.

 

Type depository.- NMV, female holotype (registration no. J34661), allotype (registration no. J34663), paratypes (registration nos. J34256, J34573, J34574, J34576, J34580, J13282, J13283).

 

Paranebalia Claus, 1880

 

Abbreviated Synonymy.- Paranebalia Claus, 1880; Packard, 1883; Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Barnard, 1914; Cannon, 1927; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Clark, 1932; Linder, 1943; Rowett, 1943; Rolfe, 1969; Brattegard, 1970; Johnson, 1970; Wakabara, 1976; Wägele, 1983; Hessler, 1984; Schram & Malzahn, 1984; Bowman et al., 1985; Dahl, 1985; Dahl, 1987; Itô, 1988; Modlin, 1991; Martin et al., 1996; Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species.-Paranebalia longipes (Willemoes-Suhm, 1875), by subsequent designation (Claus, 1880).

 

Type locality.-Bermuda, Harrington Sound.

 

Remarks.-Paranebalia includes two species, P. longipes and P. belizensis Modlin.  These shallow-water species are presumably endemic to the western Atlantic, having been recorded only from the Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, and Florida. From a separate NSF Biotic Surveys project, we have already received some new P. longipes specimens from the British Virgin Islands. Thiele's records of P. longipes from Japan and the Gulf of Siam must be re-evaluated.

 

Paranebalia belizensis Modlin, 1991 

Synonymy.-Paranebalia belizensis Modlin, 1991; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Type locality.-Twin Cayes, Belize.

 

Distribution.-The species has been reported only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.-USNM.

 

 

Paranebalia longipes (Willemoes-Suhm, 1875) 

Synonymy.- Paranebalia longipes (Willemoes-Suhm, 1875); Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Thiele, 1927; Johnson, 1970; Dahl, 1985.  Nebalia longipes Willemoes-Suhm, 1875; Claus, 1889; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Type locality.-Bermuda.

 

Distribution.-The species is thought to occur in Bermuda, the Florida Keys, and throughout the Caribbean Sea.

 

Type depository.-BMNH.

Saronebalia Haney and Martin, 2004

Synonymy.-Saronebalia guanensis Haney and Martin, 2004.

Type species.-Saronebalia guanensis Haney and Martin, 2004 (by monotypy).

Saronebalia guanensis Haney and Martin, 2004 

Synonymy.-Saronebalia guanensis Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type locality.-Guana Island, British Virgin Islands.

 

Distribution.-The species has now been recorded from Bermuda, the Exuma Cays (Bahamas), and the British Virgin Islands. It is likely widespread in the Caribbean, occurring in association with the alga Halimeda.

 

Type depository.-LACM, USNM

.

Family Nebaliopsidae Hessler, 1984

 

Nebaliopsis Sars, 1887

Synonymy.- Nebaliopsis Sars, 1887; Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Barnard, 1914; Cannon, 1927; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Clark, 1932; Linder, 1943; Rowett, 1943; Rowett, 1946; Cannon, 1960; Brahm and Geiger, 1966; Rolfe, 1969; Brattegard, 1970, Mauchline and Gage, 1983; Hessler, 1984; Schram & Malzahn, 1984; Martin et al., 1996; Petryashov, 1996; Vannier et al., 1997; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type species.- Nebaliopsis typica Sars, 1887, by monotypy.

 

Type locality.- South Atlantic, (46°46'S, 45°31'W), 2619m and South Pacific (39°41'S, 131°23'W), 4857m.

 

Type depository.- unknown.

 

Remarks.- This monotypic genus was erected for deep-water (850-6000m) specimens originally collected by the Challenger Expedition. It has been collected primarily from deep eastern Atlantic waters.

 

Nebaliopsis typica Sars, 188 

Synonymy.- Nebaliopsis typica Sars, 1887; Claus, 1889; Thiele, 1904; Thiele, 1905; Barnard, 1914; Cannon, 1927; Thiele, 1927; Cannon, 1931; Clark, 1932; Linder, 1943; Rowett, 1943; Rowett, 1946; Cannon, 1960; Brahm and Geiger, 1966; Rolfe, 1969; Brattegard, 1970, Mauchline and Gage, 1983; Hessler, 1984; Schram & Malzahn, 1984; Dahl, 1990; Martin et al., 1996; Petryashov, 1996; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

Remarks.-The first collections of Nebaliopsis typica were made during early expeditions, collected by hauls, and typically damaged.  Sars' original description, for instance, was made from two damaged specimens collected by the Challenger Expedition.  One additional specimen each was discovered on the Valdivia Deep Sea (Thiele, 1904) and Swedish Antarctic Expeditions (Ohlin, 1904).  Cannon (1931) summarized these findings and provided details on specimens of Nebaliopsis typica collected during the Discovery Expedition (1925-1927).  Mauchline and Gage (1983) captured 31 specimens of the pelagic Nebaliopsis typica using rectangular mid-water trawls.  Although their nets were fished open between the surface and depth, specimens of N. typica were only found in samples that had been fished at depths greater than 1500 meters.  It is therefore possible that this species is restricted to such depths.

 

Type locality.-South Atlantic, (46°46'S, 45°31'W), 2619m and South Pacific (39°41'S, 131°23'W), 4857m.

 

 

Pseudonebaliopsis Petryashov, 1996

Synonymy.- Pseudonebaliopsis Petryashov, 1996; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Pseudonebaliopsis atlantica Petryashov, 1996 

Synonymy.-Pseudonebaliopsis atlantica Petryashov, 1996; Haney and Martin, 2004.

 

Type locality.-Atlantic Ocean, 'nearby the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,' from expedition of R/V 'Professor Siedlecki'.

 

Distribution.-To date, this species is known only from the type locality.

 

Type depository.-unknown.

 

Nomena nuda

Nebalia chilensis Claus, 1887; Thiele, 1904; Dahl, 1990; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

Nebalia pugettensis (Clark, 1932), originally as Epinebalia pugettensis. Jespersen, 1979; Hessler, 1984; Dahl, 1985; Vetter, 1995b; Martin et al., 1996; Walker-Smith and Poore, 2001.

 

 

Nomena dubia

Nebalia ciliata Lamarck, 1818

Nebalia glabra Lamarck, 1818

Nebalia montagui Thompson, 1830

 

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